Thursday, 22 November 2012

How to Grow Strelitzia ( Bird Of Paradise ) Simple Guide

Cousin to the banana, the bird of paradise is one of the best known of all the tropical flowers. Who hasn't walked into a swanky hotel or event and seen magnificent table centerpieces built about these remarkable flowers? Surprisingly, birds are easier to grow than many tropical plants. The plant is a vigorous, rapidly growing indoor plant. Birds can be moved outside in the summer, and in warmer climes, will thrive for half the year outside. They typically flower in the late winter or early spring, but under optimal conditions, will flower at various times.

Growing Conditions:

Light: Bright light, even including some direct sunlight, to bloom well. However, only habituated plants can handle direct, midday summer sun.
Water: Keep soil continuously moist throughout the year. High humidity is preferred.
Temperature: Above 60ºF is preferred in the winter. This is not a cold-tolerant plant.
Soil: Rich, well-drained potting mix.
Fertilizer: Feed in spring with slow-release pellets or weekly during growing season with liquid fertilizer.


By division of underground rhizome during repotting. Can be grown from seed, but division is so easy, why bother?


These are rapid-growing plants that need to reach a certain size before they'll bloom. Repot every spring into a larger pot and make sure to give it room to get big.


There are four strelitzia species, but only one is grown as an indoor plant: S. reginae. This plant grows with upright leaves emerging directly from the soil—there is no trunk. The large leaves range between 12 and 18 inches long and, if exposed to windy conditions or being brushed in a busy hallway, will shred.

Grower's Tips:

S. reginae is a beautiful plant and can be very successfully grown inside. The biggest drawback is typically its size (they grow up to 5 feet) and the fact that plants need 3 to 5 years before they will flower. They work well in massed plantings or as specimen plants, and their flowers will rise above the foliage for an impressive display. The trick to successful growth is providing lots of bright light (with some gentle direct sun), water, warmth and food.
Example  Pic:

Example Video:
1 : The plants View

2 : Bird of Paradise time lapse

Saturday, 22 September 2012

Some Malaysia Fruit Plants Pic In Malaysia

Here are some list of  plants pic in malaysia, some are know well, some are unknown... so enjoy yea~^^ 
& some are suitable to be plant in malaysia .

Lepisanthes Alata
- Pokok Johor
- Perupuk
- Miracle Berry

Baccaurea Angulata 
- Belimbing Merah 
- Jungle Starfruit

Cynometra cauliflora
- Pokok Hima, Namu, Namu , Kopi Anjing
- Nam Nam

Muntingia calabura
- Jamaican Cerry
- Kerukup Siam

Morinda Spp
- Pokok Mengkudu

Passiflora Edulis
- Pokok Markisa 

Dragon Fruit
- Buah Naga

Ok, this is some of the picture,, next time I try to find more about it.. if you guys have any suggestion about plants that you know , do visit my pages & post me the pic or inbox me at  

Tuesday, 24 July 2012

Water Lotus & Lotuses

The Water Lotus is sure to be the star of any water garden, it occupies. Water lotuses are exotic, majestic and dramatic. They flourish in the sunlight and fill the water garden with vibrant colors and exotic fragrances.
A relative of the water lily, the water lotus will spread across the pond and compete for its attention. More than one lotus plant can look overwhelming in smaller ponds, so pond owners must choose the correct variety for the area they have available.

General Information on Lotuses

There are two different species of lotus: Nelumbo lutea are the Native American species andNelumbo nucifera are native to the Orient, the Philippines, north Australia, Egypt, and the Volga River delta at the Caspian Sea.
Like any aquatic plant, there are many different varieties. They come in a wide range of sizes, varying in height from 18 to 60 inches. The smaller lotus varieties can reach 8 to 12 inches tall with leaves 2 to 3 inches in diameter. These so-called "dwarf lotus" varieties can grow wonderful flowers up to 1 foot wide, resting atop stems that reach 6 feet above the water surface. Others grow 6 to 8 feet tall with leaves 18 to 36 inches in diameter.
Miniature lotus leaves can unfold 6 to 16 inches tall on stems 2 to 4 feet long. The larger ones may even grow 2 feet wide and 6 feet tall.
The pointed lotus bud emerges from the water garden on a stem 2 to 6 feet tall, unfolding its full, fragrant flower above its exotic foliage. Their beautiful flowers can grow up to a foot wide and come in a variety of colors – white, pink, red, yellow or cream.
Though they look tropical, these aquatic plants are actually perennials. Lotuses love – and need – the sun and heat in order to reach their fullest potential. Though they certainly are able to bloom in partially shaded situations, the water temperature must be warm enough for them – between 75 and 87 degrees. The lotus will meet its enemy, however, in humidity. This aquatic plant will not fare well in humid conditions.
Water Lotuses thrive in warm climates, requiring at least 5 to 6 hours of sun a day. They will grow with less, but they will not bloom as well, and their foliage may be stunted. Cloudy, cool areas such as the Pacific Northwest do not provide a hospitable environment for these sun-worshipping aquatics. Because of their large leaves, lotuses are so-called heavy feeders, therefore requiring so much of the sun’s attention. In order to truly thrive, they need full, day-long sunlight.

Lotus Pic Colour  

Planting and Maintenance 

Many people find the lotus an intimidating aquatic plant to handle. They are, however, quite simple to grow – almost as easy as water lilies, though they do require more care and patience.
The banana-shaped roots of the lotus are called tubers – and they’re very fragile. Handle them with extreme care so as not to break off the eye, or the pointed tip of the tuber from where the leaves will eventually grow. It is important to know the lotus will not grow properly if the eye is damaged in any way.
Warmth is essential to growing the lotus from the very beginning. Keeping the tuber too cold may cause it to rot before it takes root, so take care to keep it warm. It helps to keep the tuber floating in pond water for two weeks (a little less is okay) in a warm, sunny place before planting it.
Once the lotus tuber is ready for planting, you must choose a location. It should be planted in a sunny spot, away from flowing water, and in a space that is proportional to the size and number of lotus to be grown. Larger lotus varieties need large areas in pond or water gardens, while smaller lotus varieties will thrive in smaller areas.
Next, choose a pot. Because lotuses grow to the size of the area in which they are planted, containers will prevent them from sprawling out of control and taking over, as would happen if they were planted loose in any pond or water garden. On that note, choose the size of the container carefully, as they will size themselves to their container. Use the deepest pot possible to decrease the chances that they will jump over the side and grow further out into the pond than intended. Furthermore, because of their fragility, it is best to plant them in large, round containers with plenty of room so they don’t get wedged or jammed in any corners, in turn stunting their grown or worse – killing them. Use the largest, roundest container that will fit in the desired space.
Standard-size lotus grow well in containers that are 3 to 4 feet in diameter, while smaller or dwarf-size lotuses can be planted in smaller, bushel-size vessels. Again, though, the largest and deepest possible pot is preferred.
Fill the chosen pot with soil, leaving 3 to 4 inches remaining at the top. The best possible soil is amended soil, or soil with material added to it to improve its physical properties. This soil creates a better environment for the roots to grow. Then cover the soil with 2 to 3 inches of sand and slowly fill the container with water.
Now it’s time to plant the tuber. Set the tuber on the surface of the filled pot – embed it slightly in the sand, then weigh it down with stones. This will prevent the tuber from floating out of the dirt until the roots have developed. Burying the tuber in the sand and soil can cause the tuber to rot, so take care to only embed it only slightly.
After this, the lotus will basically plant itself, turning downward into soil mixture and then growing as it should. Just be sure to keep the aquatic plant in a sunny area. The plants will grow quicker if they are kept in heated water. Leaves will begin to come up once the tuber has taken root. The warmer the room the tubers begin in, the quicker they are likely to appear.
Once the container is filled with the sand and soil and the tuber is secured in place, you can lower it into the water garden or pond. The container should be 6 to 12 inches below the water’s surface – anything less than that could cause the plant to tip or bend over as it grows taller.
Lotuses are slow-growing aquatic plants at first. The new leaves, or young leaves, will start out by floating on the surface. This usually takes place 2 to 3 weeks after being planted in mid-spring. At this point, you can start feeding the plants fertilizer tablets designed for water gardens, if you desire. These floating leaves will look like giant lily pads, and will be followed by curled-up aerial leaves. The sturdy leafstalks will soon follow that. These leafstalks will lift the foliage above the water, several inches to several feet above the water’s surface.
Lotuses do not bloom as early in the season as do their relatives, the water lily. They need 3 to 4 weeks of temperatures above 80 degrees to begin blooming. They often do not produce their first blossoms until their second summer, after they have been transplanted. It is in this second year that they begin to bear more flowers. It is possible, however, to bloom their first season with several weeks of sun and temperatures holding consistently in the 80s.
In most parts of North America, they will begin to bloom in mid-June to mid-July and will continue to bloom on into autumn.
Lotuses are day-blooming plants, opening early in the morning and closing by mid-afternoon. They completely close up at night. This bloom pattern continues throughout their lifespan, which is typically 3 to 5 days. On the third day, the petals begin to fall, leaving behind their seedpod. This seedpod is what allows more lotuses to keep growing. It is yellow at the time the flower first opens, though it eventually turns green. It expands in size once the petals have fallen until it is nearly twice its original size in diameter. Eventually, after about 6 weeks it turns brown. Once matured, it heads back to the water where it makes more lotuses and begins the cycle again.
Throughout the season, the yellowed and yellowing foliage should be removed. All dead leaves found an inch above water should be removed, as well. They should be fertilized every 2 to 3 weeks throughout the growing season and should be heavily fertilized throughout the spring. As soon as flowers begin to show, the fertilizing should continue, but at a lower rate. Every 2 to 3 years, pond owners should completely rework the pot they grown their lotus in – emptying it out, clearing out the dead tubers, and adding new soil to start fresh.
Once the weather begins to turn cooler and winter approaches, special care must be given to lotuses to ensure they will return the following spring. In the fall, carefully cut away all of the foliage off this splendid aquatic plant, as the lotus begins slowing down for the winter. In colder climates, lower the pan deep to the bottom of the pond to be left there over winter. This will allow it to keep over winter nicely, so long as the pond doesn’t freeze to the bottom. In warmer climates, however, the lotus can be kept in the water garden throughout this colder season. Either way, the goal is to keep the lotus cool and dormant without freezing it. Come springtime in those colder climates, once the new leaves begin to emerge, move the container up to its proper, shallower depth of the water. 

Example Video 

Video 1

Video 2

Few More Info about lotus....

The Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) symbolizes purity, beauty, majesty, grace, fertility, wealth, richness, knowledge and serenity. The Pink Lotus is the National Flower of India. Nelumbo nucifera is known by a number of common names, including Sacred lotus, Indian lotus and Sacred water-lily.
NelumboLotuses are found in white and pink colors in general and they grow in shallow and murky waters. Lotus flowers enjoy warm sunlight and are intolerant to cold weather. This is why the Lotus is not seen blossoming in the winter. The floating leaves and Lotus flowers have long stems, which contain air spaces to maintain the buoyancy. The Lotus is native to Asia and flourishes in a wide range of climates from India to China.The Lotus plant is an aquatic perennial, native to southern Asia and Australia and most commonly cultivated in water gardens. The plant has its roots firmly in the mud and sends out long stems to which their leaves are attached. The leaves are sometimes, and Lotus flowers always, raised above the water surface. The beautiful and fragrant Lotus flower opens in the morning and petals fall in the afternoon.

Facts about Lotus Flowers
  1. The Lotus is a sacred flower for Buddhists.
  2. The Lotus flower is quoted extensively in Puranic and Vedic literature.
  3. The Lotus is one of the eight auspicious signs of Buddhism - an eight petalled lotus used in Buddhist mandalas symbolizes cosmic harmony, a thousand petalled Lotus, spiritual illumination. A bud symbolizes potential. The well-known Buddhist mantra, "Om mane padme," refers to the jewel in the lotus, enlightenment.
  4. In Egyptian mythology, the Lotus is associated with the sun, because it bloomed by day and closed by night. The Lotus is even believed to have given birth to the sun.
  5. The roots of the Lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface. The Lotus flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the water.
  6. The Lotus flowers, seeds, young leaves and rhizomes are all edible. In Asia, the petals are sometimes used for garnish, while the large leaves are used as a wrap for food.
  7. Various parts of the sacred Lotus are also used in traditional Asian herbal medicine.
  8. The Lotus fruits are a conical pod with seeds contained in holes in the pod. Nucifera means having hard fruit. When the seeds are ripe, they become loose in the pod. The pod then tips down towards the water, releasing the seeds.
  9. When the Lotus flower's petals fall, they are replaced by a flat-topped seed pod divided into compartments, resembling a wasp's hive. The tender seeds are munched happily in north-east India.
  10. The Lotus stem is eaten almost in all parts of India, and pickled too.
  11. Nelumbium luteum is the American Lotus, with pale, small flowers.
  12. The Indian or Chinese Lotus, nelumbium nelumbo, usually has pink flowers although white, rose and double varieties are available. 
Growing a Lotus
  1. Place the seeds into a glass of non-chlorinated, warm water.
  2. The seeds that float should be thrown away since they are probably not fertile and will only cloud up the water. Change the water every day while you are waiting for them to sprout.
  3. Once you see the Lotus roots emerge, pot them in 4-inch pots filled with good garden loam; a depression should be made and one seed should be set in each pot. Cover the root gently with soil or gravel.
  4. If you waited too long and the Lotus leaves started to grow, keep them free of soil as you cover the root.
  5. The seed should be set in warm water up to 2 inches deep; no more than that.
  6. Give the Lotus as much light as possible until the water in your garden warms up to at least 60 degrees F.
  7. At this time, plant your Lotuses in larger containers without drainage holes.
  8. Lotuses started from seeds will probably not bloom in the first year.
Lotus Plant Care
  1. The Lotus plant should be fertilized sparingly for the first year.
  2. Too much fertilizer may cause the Lotus foliage to burn.
  3. A Lotus plant that is established can be fed every 3 or 4 weeks during the growing season.
  4. Care must be taken when inserting fertilizer tabs, because the growing tip and new growth can be damaged.
  5. It is important to protect the Lotus roots from freezing.
  6. Lotus can winter over in the pond if the pond depth is below the freeze line for your area.
  7. In late fall, the yellowed foliage should be cut off and the plant lowered to the deepest part of the pond.
  8. Or you may lift the tubers after the plant has died back during the fall.
  9. If you lift the tubers, store them in a cool, frost-free location until late spring.
  10. To help prevent mildew and rotting, store them in living sphagnum moss.

Next Blog water Plants Post "MAYBE" will be : Victoria  Lotus Lily Info 

Friday, 8 June 2012

Ziziphus mauritiana ( Pokok Epal Bidara)


Current name: Ziziphus mauritiana
Authority: Lam.
Family: Rhamnaceae

Rhamnus jujuba L.
Zyziphus jujuba Lam.

Common names

(Amharic) : kurkura
(Arabic) : nabak (fruit), sidr
(Bengali) : ber, ber boroi, boroi, kool
(Burmese) : eng-si, zee-pen, zizidaw
(English) : bear tree, ber, Chinese apple, Chinese date, common jujube, desert apple, dunks, geb, Indian cherry, Indian jujube, Indian plum, jujube
(Filipino) : manzanita
(French) : jujube, jujubier, jujubier commun, le jujubier, le jujubier sauvage, liane croc-chien
(Hindi) : baer, ber
(Indonesian) : bidara, dara, widara
(Khmer) : putrea
(Lao (Sino-Tibetan)) : than
(Malay) : bidara, epal siam, jujub
(Mandinka) : toboro, tomboron moussana, tomborongo
(Nepali) : bayer
(Sanskrit) : ajapriya, badara, karkandhu, kuvala, madhuraphala
(Somali) : geb, gub
(Spanish) : perita haitiana, Ponseré, yuyuba
(Swahili) : mkunazi
(Tamil) : elandai, yellande
(Thai) : ma tan, ma thong, phutsan
(Tigrigna) : geva
(Trade name) : jujube
(Vietnamese) : c[aa]y t[as]o ta, tao, tao nhuc

Botanic description

Ziziphus mauritiana is a spiny, evergreen shrub or small tree up to 15 m high, with trunk 40 cm or more in diameter; spreading crown; stipular spines and many drooping branches. Bark dark grey or dull black, irregularly fissured. Where climatic conditions are severe, it is commonly a compact shrub only 3-4 m tall. Leaves variable, alternate, in 2 rows, oblong-elliptic, 2.5-6 x 1.5-5 cm, with tip rounded or slightly notched base; finely wavy-toothed on edges, shiny green and hairless above; dense, whitish, soft hairs underneath. Inflorescence axillary cymes, 1-2 cm long, with 7-20 flowers; peduncles 2-3 mm long; flowers 2-3 mm across, greenish-yellow, faintly fragrant; pedicels 3-8 mm long; calyx with 5 deltoid lobes, hairy outside, glabrous within; petals 5, subspathulate, concave, reflexed. Fruit a drupe, globose to ovoid, up to 6 x 4 cm in cultivation, usually much smaller when wild; skin smooth or rough, glossy, thin but tough, yellowish to reddish or blackish; flesh white, crisp, juicy, subacid to sweet, becoming mealy in fully ripe fruits. Seed a tuberculate and irregularly furrowed stone, containing 1-2 elliptic brown kernels each 6 mm long. The name ‘Ziziphus’ is often erroneously written as Zizyphus. The generic name is derived from the latinized version of the Arabic vernacular name ‘zizouf’ for Z. jujuba.

Ecology and distribution
History of cultivation
Early studies indicate that the centre of origin of Z. mauritiana is Central Asia. This species is indigenous to North Africa, from Afghanistan through north India to southern China, Malaysia, and Queensland in Australia. The use of Z. mauritiana in India can be traced back as early as 1000 BC. However, Z. mauritiana is now widely distributed and has become naturalized in tropical Africa, Burma, Barbados, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, Iran, Martinique, Sri Lanka, Syria and parts of the Mediterranean. It is commercially important in India and China only.

Natural Habitat
Z. mauritiana is a hardy tree that copes with extreme temperatures and thrives under rather dry conditions. Fruit quality is best under hot, sunny and dry conditions, but there should be a rainy season to support extension growth and flowering, ideally leaving enough residual soil moisture to carry the fruit to maturity. Commercial cultivation usually extends up to 1000 m. Beyond this elevation trees do not perform well, and cultivation becomes less economical. Native to the tropical and subtropical regions, Z. mauritiana is more widespread in areas with an annual rainfall of 300-500 mm. It is known for its ability to withstand adverse conditions, such as salinity, drought and waterlogging.

Geographic distribution
Native : Afghanistan, Algeria, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam
Exotic : Angola, Barbados, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Biophysical limits
Altitude: 0-1 500 m, Mean annual temperature: 7-13 to 37-48 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: 120-2 200 mm Soil type: Best soils are sandy loam which may be neutral or even slightly alkaline. Can grow on a variety of soils including laterite, black cotton and oolitic limestone.

Reproductive Biology
Some cultivars attain anthesis early in the morning, others do so later in the day. The flowers are protandrous. Hence, fruit set depends on cross-pollination by insects attracted by the fragrance and nectar. The pollen of the flower is described as ‘heavy and thick’. In India, different species of honeybees (Apis spp.) and house flies (Musca domestica) are reported to be important pollinators; the wasps Polistes hebraceus and Physiphora spp. have also been observed on flowers. Cross-incompatibility occurs, and cultivars have to be matched for good fruit set; some cultivars produce good crops parthenocarpically. Fruit development takes 4 months in early cultivars to 6 months in late ones. In Southeast Asia, Z. mauritiana flowers concurrently with shoot growth in the wet season. Mammals and birds disperse the fruits.

Propagation and management
Propagation methods
Pretreatment is beneficial. Storage of the seed for 4 months to let it after-ripen improves germination. If facilities are available, stratification in sand for 60-90 days at 5 deg. C is recommended. Scarification, extracting the seed from the stone, and treating it with sulphuric acid has also been recommended. To germinate, seeds need full sunlight. Germination is epigeal and takes 3-4 weeks with seed left in stone, quicker if it is cracked, and 1 week if carefully extracted. Seed should be sown in trays or beds, and the seedlings pricked out when 2 pairs of true leaves have developed. The seedlings should also be given full light. It is likely that seedlings will need about 15 months in the nursery. Stumps may be used. When propagating selected varieties for fruit, budding or ring-grafting is used. Inarching and root-suckers are also possible methods of vegetative propagation.

Tree Management
Z. mauritiana is a fast-growing species. Under favourable conditions, height increment on loose soil is 75 cm in 1 year and 1.2 m in 2 years; growth is stragglier by the 3rd season, when under similar growth conditions plants are thick and bushy, up to 1.5 m high. Growth is poor under natural conditions, 5-8 cm high after 1st season and 17-35 cm after 2nd season; Z. mauritiana coppices well and grows vigorously from stumps and root suckers. Fruiting starts after 3-5 years and is usually very abundant.

Germplasm Management

Orthodox storage behaviour, viability maintained for 2 years in hermetic air-dry storage at 5 deg. C. The germination rate increases during the 1st year of storage. The cleaned stones can be kept for 5 years in sealed containers, although during this period the viability drops from 95% to 30%. Z. mauritiana has 3300 pyrenes/kg.

Example Picture

Functional uses
Food: Fruit is eaten fresh or dried and can be made into a floury meal, butter, or a cheeselike paste, used as a condiment. Also used for candy making and pickling. The fruit is a good source of carotene, vitamins A and C, and fatty oils. A refreshing drink is prepared by macerating fruits in water. In Indonesia, young leaves are cooked as a vegetable. Fodder: In parts of India and North Africa, the leaves of Z. mauritiana are used as nutritious fodder for sheep and goats. Analysis of the chemicals constituents on a dry weight basis indicates the leaves contain 15.4% crude protein, 15.8% crude fibre, 6.7% total minerals, and 16.8% starch. In India, the leaves are also gathered to feed tasar silkworms; tasar silk, highly prized, is the only silk commercially exploited in the tropics. Fuel: Z. mauritiana produces excellent firewood (sapwood has 4900 kcals/kg) and good charcoal. Its drooping branches are easily accessible for harvesting. Apiculture: When in bloom it is ocassionally a source of pollen, at best a minor one. Timber: Z. mauritiana yields a medium-weight to heavy hardwood with a density of 535-1080 kg/m³. Heartwood is buff-coloured, pale red or brown to dark brown, sometimes banded or with dark streaks, not sharply demarcated from pale brown sapwood; grain straight, occasionally wavy; texture fine to coarse; wood fairly lustrous. It seasons well but may split slightly during seasoning; easy to work and takes a high finish. It is hard and strong. The wood is used for general construction, furniture and cabinet work, tool handles, agricultural implements, tent pegs, golf clubs, gun stocks, sandals, yokes, harrows, toys, turnery, household utensils, bowling pins, baseball bats, chisels and packaging. It is also suitable for the production of veneer and plywood. Basically, any product that needs a durable, close-grained wood can be made from it. Tannin or dyestuff: The bark, including the root bark, has served in tanning; when pounded and mashed in water, it yields brown and grey or reddish dyes. Alcohol: A raw, intoxicating spirit is occasionally distilled from the fermented fruit pulp. Poison: Z. mauritiana is used to stupefy fish in Ethiopia. Medicine: Leaves, fruits and bark are used medicinally. Pounded roots are added to drinking water and given to poultry suffering from diarrhoea and to humans for indigestion. Other products: In India, Z. mauritiana trees are a host for the lac insects, Kerria lacca, which are found on the leaves and make an orange-red resinous substance. The purified resin makes the high-quality ber shellac that is used in fine lacquer work and to produce sealing wax and varnish.

Erosion control: A suitable species to aid in fixation of coastal dune sand. Shade or shelter: The tree has been planted for shade and windbreaks. Reclamation: Can withstand severe heat, frost and drought; hence it is planted in dry areas and on sites unfit for other crops. Ornamental: Z. mauritiana is well suited for homegardens. Boundary or barrier or support: Tree useful as a living fence; its spiny stems and branches deter livestock.

Pests and diseases
Fruit flies are a major cause of crop losses, the insects unfortunately having a preference for the same cultivars as humans. Damage by fruit-borers, leaf-eating caterpillars, weevils, leafhoppers and mealy bugs has also been reported. Insect pests include Meridarchis scyrodes, Oocussida cruenta, Myllocerus spp., Thiacidas postica, Drepanococcus chiton, Florithirps tregardhi and Systasis spp. Powdery mildew can be so serious that leaves and fruitlets drop, but it can be adequately controlled. Lesser diseases are sooty mould, brown rot and leaf-spot.

Example Video

How to breed them^^

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